Acts 2

Based on a “challenge”:http://godbit.com/article/bible-markup-pattern#c001602 from the venerable “Carl Camera”:http://iamacamera.org/:

h3. Acts 2

h4. The Holy Spirit Comes at Pentecost

^1^ When the day of Pentecost came, they were all together in one place. ^2^ Suddenly a sound like the blowing of a violent wind came from heaven and filled the whole house where they were sitting. ^3^ They saw what seemed to be tongues of fire that separated and came to rest on each of them. ^4^ All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues[1] as the Spirit enabled them.

^5^ Now there were staying in Jerusalem God-fearing Jews from every nation under heaven. ^6^ When they heard this sound, a crowd came together in bewilderment, because each one heard them speaking in his own language. ^7^ Utterly amazed, they asked: “Are not all these men who are speaking Galileans? ^8^ Then how is it that each of us hears them in his own native language? ^9^ Parthians, Medes and Elamites; residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, ^10^ Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the parts of Libya near Cyrene; visitors from Rome ^11^ (both Jews and converts to Judaism); Cretans and Arabs–we hear them declaring the wonders of God in our own tongues!” ^12^ Amazed and perplexed, they asked one another, “What does this mean?”

^13^ Some, however, made fun of them and said, “They have had too much wine[2].”

h4. Peter Addresses the Crowd

^14^ Then Peter stood up with the Eleven, raised his voice and addressed the crowd: “Fellow Jews and all of you who live in Jerusalem, let me explain this to you; listen carefully to what I say. ^15^ These men are not drunk, as you suppose. It’s only nine in the morning! ^16^ No, this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel:

^17^ ” ‘In the last days, God says,

I will pour out my Spirit on all people.
Your sons and daughters will prophesy,
your young men will see visions,
your old men will dream dreams.

^18^ Even on my servants, both men and women,
I will pour out my Spirit in those days,
and they will prophesy.

^19^ I will show wonders in the heaven above
and signs on the earth below,
blood and fire and billows of smoke.

^20^ The sun will be turned to darkness
and the moon to blood
before the coming of the great and glorious day of the Lord.

^21^ And everyone who calls
on the name of the Lord will be saved[3].’

^22^ “Men of Israel, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know. ^23^ This man was handed over to you by God’s set purpose and foreknowledge; and you, with the help of wicked men[4], put him to death by nailing him to the cross. ^24^ But God raised him from the dead, freeing him from the agony of death, because it was impossible for death to keep its hold on him.

^25^ David said about him:

” ‘I saw the Lord always before me.
Because he is at my right hand,
I will not be shaken.

^26^ Therefore my heart is glad and my tongue rejoices;
my body also will live in hope,

^27^ because you will not abandon me to the grave,
nor will you let your Holy One see decay.

^28^ You have made known to me the paths of life;
you will fill me with joy in your presence[5].’

^29^ “Brothers, I can tell you confidently that the patriarch David died and was buried, and his tomb is here to this day. ^30^ But he was a prophet and knew that God had promised him on oath that he would place one of his descendants on his throne. ^31^ Seeing what was ahead, he spoke of the resurrection of the Christ[6], that he was not abandoned to the grave, nor did his body see decay. ^32^ God has raised this Jesus to life, and we are all witnesses of the fact. ^33^ Exalted to the right hand of God, he has received from the Father the promised Holy Spirit and has poured out what you now see and hear.

^34^ For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said,

” ‘The Lord said to my Lord:
“Sit at my right hand

^35^ until I make your enemies
a footstool for your feet[7].” ‘

^36^ “Therefore let all Israel be assured of this: God has made this Jesus, whom you crucified, both Lord and Christ.”

^37^ When the people heard this, they were cut to the heart and said to Peter and the other apostles, “Brothers, what shall we do?”

^38^ Peter replied, “Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. ^39^ The promise is for you and your children and for all who are far off–for all whom the Lord our God will call.”

^40^ With many other words he warned them; and he pleaded with them, “Save yourselves from this corrupt generation.” ^41^ Those who accepted his message were baptized, and about three thousand were added to their number that day.

h4. The Fellowship of the Believers

^42^ They devoted themselves to the apostles’ teaching and to the fellowship, to the breaking of bread and to prayer. ^43^ Everyone was filled with awe, and many wonders and miraculous signs were done by the apostles.
^44^ All the believers were together and had everything in common. ^45^ Selling their possessions and goods, they gave to anyone as he had need. ^46^ Every day they continued to meet together in the temple courts. They broke bread in their homes and ate together with glad and sincere hearts, ^47^ praising God and enjoying the favor of all the people. And the Lord added to their number daily those who were being saved.

??(bibleref)Acts 2:1-47??

h3. Footnotes (NIV(New International Version)):

fn1. “Acts 2:4”:#en-NIV-26943 Or languages; also in verse 11

fn2. “Acts 2:13”:#en-NIV-26952 Or sweet wine

fn3. “Acts 2:21”:#en-NIV-26960 Joel 2:28-32

fn4. “Acts 2:23”:#en-NIV-26962 Or of those not having the law (that is, Gentiles)

fn5. “Acts 2:28”:#en-NIV-26967 Psalm 16:8-11

fn6. “Acts 2:31”:#en-NIV-26970 Or Messiah. “The Christ” (Greek) and “the Messiah” (Hebrew) both mean “the Anointed One”; also in verse 36.

fn7. “Acts 2:35”:#en-NIV-26974 Psalm 110:1

h3. “New International Version”:http://www.ibs.org/niv/

_Copyright (c) 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society [Zondervan]_


Bible Markup Pattern: A Proposal

_(Also published at_ “Godbit”:http://godbit.com/article/bible-markup-pattern.)

What is the _best_ way to mark up text from the Bible? I’ve been thinking about this question for more than a year, and in that time I have sought an answer, or at least a proposal.

If you’re impatient, here are the examples: “Exodus 20”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/exodus-20, “Psalm 23”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/psalm-23, “Matthew 5”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/matthew-5, and “Matthew 6:5-15”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/Lord%27s+Prayer.

h3. Caveats

Please remember this article presents only a proposal for consideration. I am no theologian; nor am I a renowned expert on front-end code. Nor does every page of every site I’ve ever built have “best” markup, however I do make every effort to do so.

However, it seems to me that–of all texts in the world–it should be important to make an effort toward best practices in marking up the Bible.

Of course, I welcome corrections and commentary, any thoughts or additions.

h3. Background

Some good work has been done on citation of online Bible quotes, including “BibleRef”:http://www.semanticbible.com/bibleref/bibleref-overview.html and “OpenBible.info”:http://www.openbible.info/blog/2007/05/bible-microformats/. There are even some “WordPress plugins”:http://www.semanticbible.com/bibleref/bibleref-faq.html#wordpress for BibleRef.

bq. Bibleref is a simple approach to automatically identifying Bible references [in] web pages.

I use and recommend BibleRef, which is a foundational proposal that focuses directly on the citation, for example: @2 Tim 3:16@. All of the present examples use the “BibleRef”:http://www.semanticbible.com/bibleref/bibleref-overview.html citation format.

But I wanted something more comprehensive, that would help with marking up entire biblical texts or even a whole Bible.

bq. Bibleref is part of a general movement toward markup that expresses more semantic, rather than presentational, element.

So, my question is broader than citation format: what elements should we use,
as best practice?

h3. What’s “Best”?

When considering what may be a “best” way to mark up the Bible, several requirements or principles come to mind.

First, it means using (X)HTML in a way that is valid, minimal, and semantic. In this case, the term *”valid”* means essentially “meeting the requirements set by the “W3C”:http://www.w3.org/ of the specification selected by the “Doctype”:http://www.w3.org/QA/Tips/Doctype of that document.”

*”Minimal”* refers to adding as few “elements and attributes”:http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/#general as reasonably possible to the text itself, while preserving its structure.

And for purposes of this article, *”semantic”* means a few things: using meaningful elements that match each portion of the text, and communicate its functional meaning. In other words, if some text is a primary heading, use an

(heading) element; if it’s a paragraph, use a

(paragraph) element; if a block quote, use a

element, etc.

The word “semantic” also mandates general web standards principles, including:

* no tables for layout,
* avoid inline styles,
* avoid frames,
* avoid numerous

and elements (especially those with class attributes that mimic other elements, like headings and paragraphs),
* don’t require JavaScript or Flash.

h4. CMS(Content Management Systems) – Friendly

Another principle for my project is to recognize the ubiquity of the “content management system”:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Content_management_system. Most current content on the web is no longer in static web pages; rather, it is stored in a database and presented dynamically when someone asks for it.

So, the four examples I’ve prepared are all marked up using the excellent “Textile”:http://textile.thresholdstate.com/ syntax, the “humane Web text generator”.

h3. Not a Microformat

I support and use “Microformats”:http://microformats.org/, but it should be noted that this Bible markup pattern is _not_ a Microformat, and for various reasons it probably never will be.

h3. Current Practice

I did some research on how some publishers and versions are presented on the web, basically by looking at as many of these four examples in the four versions that were available on these five sites: “Bible Gateway”:http://www.biblegateway.com/, “English Standard Version”:http://www.gnpcb.org/esv/, “eBible”:http://www.ebible.com/, “YouVersion”:http://youversion.com/, and “WEB Bible”:http://www.ebible.org/web/.

The markup was about what you might expect from large sites with big content management systems. With very few exceptions, the markup of the pages were all invalid, not minimal, and not semantic.

However, they all at least declared a Doctype, and compared to many enormous commercial sites, most of the markup was rather clean. In fact, almost all used heading elements well, and used some arrangement of mainly paragraph elements with some class attributes. Depending on the content management system, my impression is that much of this Bible text markup could be much improved without undue effort.

h3. Thing One, and Thing Two

Some informal study indicates there seem to be two basic semantic types or “genres” of biblical text.

The first type can be categorized as _prose_, and includes paragraphs, lists, and block quotes. The second type may be called _verse_, which includes poems, songs, and other lyrical matter.

I realize this may be gross over-simplification, but when constructing any taxonomy there is a tension in selecting the number of categories. In this case, I propose simply two categories, which adds semantic richness while being simple enough for this introductory article.

bq. The two main genres in the Bible are narrative and poetry.
— “Editors’ Preface”:http://www.esvliterarystudybible.org/preface to the “ESV”:http://www.gnpcb.org/esv/ Literary Study Bible

p. Even a simple two-category taxonomy can yield powerful results: pick up a Bible and compare Genesis to Psalms, which contain mostly _prose_ and _verse_ respectively. It’s obvious they are presented differently, and this basic presentational character can be preserved in the markup.

h3. Examples

As examples of this proposed Bible markup pattern, it seemed appropriate to use passages from both Old and New Testaments, including prose, block quotes, and verse.

I selected four texts as examples, which are posted on my blog: “Exodus 20”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/exodus-20, “Psalm 23”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/psalm-23, “Matthew 5”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/matthew-5, and “Matthew 6:5-15”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/Lord%27s+Prayer. These passages are also known as the Ten Commandments, the Beatitudes, the Lord’s Prayer, and … the Twenty-Third Psalm.

Each example is presented in a different version: Exodus 20 in the NIV(New International Version), Psalm 23 in the ESV(English Standard Version), Matthew 5 in the WEB(Web English Bible), and Matthew 6:5-15 in the KJV(King James Version).

h3. Overview: The Method

# *Bible:* The first step is simple: a container element, such as a

, gets a class attribute of “bible”.
# *Headings:* The second step is also easy: Headings use heading elements, such as


, etc.
# *Paragraphs:* Put almost everything else in a paragraph.
# *Block quotes:* surround one or more paragraphs of a block quote in a

# *Verse numbers and Footnotes:* At first, I thought it would be clever to use ordered lists for the verse numbers, but that only works if everyone begins all their Bible quotations from the beginning of a chapter. So, verse numbers are elements. Similarly, footnote reference numbers are elements with a class attribute of “footnote”.
# *Verse, Poetry, etc.:* As between “prose” and “verse,” I chose to make “prose” the default. If some or all of a passage is verse, then enclose that text with an element (such as a ) with a class attribute of “verse”.
# *Additional:* There are a few additional aspects, including div elements to enclose multi-paragraph “stanzas” of verse (see “Psalm 23”:http://michaelmontgomery.net/bible/psalm-23), and the markup of the footnotes.

h3. The Styles

For ease of reference, the Bible style information is embedded in the head of the examples, so you can simply view the page source.

In actual use, they should be included in a separate CSS(Cascading Style Sheet) file with the other styles for that page. A sample CSS file of the Bible styles is available for “download”:http://godbit.com/file_download/48/Bible.css.

h3. The Future

Some thoughts for the future:

* How to markup _Selah_ or a closing _Amen_? Perhaps class="affirmation"?
* Initial caps for the chapter number, superseding the verse number of the first verse of that chapter?
* Perhaps a print stylesheet, for selecting a slightly different font stack, or sizing the printed text in points.
* And the one I’m almost afraid to ask, what about class="wordsofchrist"?

Let the discussion begin….

_This article is (c) Montgomery 2008. Some rights released with a_ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 License.


Matthew 5

^1^ Seeing the multitudes, he went up onto the mountain. When he had sat down, his disciples came to him. ^2^ He opened his mouth and taught them, saying,

bq.. ^3^ “Blessed are the poor in spirit,
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven[1].

^4^ Blessed are those who mourn,
for they shall be comforted[2].

^5^ Blessed are the gentle,
for they shall inherit the earth[3].

^6^ Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness,
for they shall be filled.

^7^ Blessed are the merciful,
for they shall obtain mercy.

^8^ Blessed are the pure in heart,
for they shall see God.

^9^ Blessed are the peacemakers,
for they shall be called children of God.

^10^ Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness’ sake,
for theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven.

p. ^11^ “Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. ^12^ Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you.

^13^ “You are the salt of the earth, but if the salt has lost its flavor, with what will it be salted? It is then good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under the feet of men. ^14^ You are the light of the world. A city located on a hill can’t be hidden. ^15^ Neither do you light a lamp, and put it under a measuring basket, but on a stand; and it shines to all who are in the house. ^16^ Even so, let your light shine before men; that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.

^17^ “Don’t think that I came to destroy the law or the prophets. I didn’t come to destroy, but to fulfill. ^18^ For most certainly, I tell you, until heaven and earth pass away, not even one smallest letter[4] or one tiny pen stroke[5] shall in any way pass away from the law, until all things are accomplished. ^19^ Whoever, therefore, shall break one of these least commandments, and teach others to do so, shall be called least in the Kingdom of Heaven; but whoever shall do and teach them shall be called great in the Kingdom of Heaven. ^20^ For I tell you that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, there is no way you will enter into the Kingdom of Heaven.

^21^ “You have heard that it was said to the ancient ones, ‘You shall not murder[6];’ and ‘Whoever shall murder shall be in danger of the judgment.’ ^22^ But I tell you, that everyone who is angry with his brother without a cause[7] shall be in danger of the judgment; and whoever shall say to his brother, ‘Raca[8]!’ shall be in danger of the council; and whoever shall say, ‘You fool!’ shall be in danger of the fire of Gehenna[9].

^23^ “If therefore you are offering your gift at the altar, and there remember that your brother has anything against you, ^24^ leave your gift there before the altar, and go your way. First be reconciled to your brother, and then come and offer your gift. ^25^ Agree with your adversary quickly, while you are with him in the way; lest perhaps the prosecutor deliver you to the judge, and the judge deliver you to the officer, and you be cast into prison. ^26^ Most certainly I tell you, you shall by no means get out of there, until you have paid the last penny[10].

^27^ “You have heard that it was said[11], ‘You shall not commit adultery[12];’ ^28^ but I tell you that everyone who gazes at a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. ^29^ If your right eye causes you to stumble, pluck it out and throw it away from you. For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna[13]. ^30^ If your right hand causes you to stumble, cut it off, and throw it away from you. For it is more profitable for you that one of your members should perish, than for your whole body to be cast into Gehenna[14].

^31^ “It was also said, ‘Whoever shall put away his wife, let him give her a writing of divorce[15],’ ^32^ but I tell you that whoever puts away his wife, except for the cause of sexual immorality, makes her an adulteress; and whoever marries her when she is put away commits adultery.

^33^ “Again you have heard that it was said to them of old time, ‘You shall not make false vows, but shall perform to the Lord your vows,’ ^34^ but I tell you, don’t swear at all: neither by heaven, for it is the throne of God; ^35^ nor by the earth, for it is the footstool of his feet; nor by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King. ^36^ Neither shall you swear by your head, for you can’t make one hair white or black. ^37^ But let your ‘Yes’ be ‘Yes’ and your ‘No’ be ‘No.’ Whatever is more than these is of the evil one.

^38^ “You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth[16].’ ^39^ But I tell you, don’t resist him who is evil; but whoever strikes you on your right cheek, turn to him the other also. ^40^ If anyone sues you to take away your coat, let him have your cloak also. ^41^ Whoever compels you to go one mile, go with him two. ^42^ Give to him who asks you, and don’t turn away him who desires to borrow from you.

^43^ “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor[17], and hate your enemy[18].’ ^44^ But I tell you, love your enemies, bless those who curse you, do good to those who hate you, and pray for those who mistreat you and persecute you, ^45^ that you may be children of your Father who is in heaven. For he makes his sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the just and the unjust. ^46^ For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Don’t even the tax collectors do the same? ^47^ If you only greet your friends, what more do you do than others? Don’t even the tax collectors[19] do the same? ^48^ Therefore you shall be perfect, just as your Father in heaven is perfect.

??(bibleref)Matthew 5??

h3. Footnotes (WEB(World English Bible)):

fn1. Isaiah 57:15; 66:2

fn2. Isaiah 61:2; 66:10,13

fn3. or, land. Psalm 37:11

fn4. literally, iota

fn5. or, serif

fn6. Exodus 20:13

fn7. NU omits “without a cause”.

fn8. “Raca” is an Aramaic insult, related to the word for “empty” and conveying the idea of empty-headedness.

fn9. or, Hell

fn11. literally, kodrantes. A kodrantes was a small copper coin worth about 2 lepta (widow’s mites)–not enough to buy very much of anything.

fn12. TR adds “to the ancients,”

fn13. Exodus 20:14

fn14. or, Hell

fn15. or, Hell

fn16. Deuteronomy 24:1

fn17. Exodus 21:24; Leviticus 24:20; Deuteronomy 19:21

fn18. Leviticus 19:18

fn19. not in the Bible, but see Qumran Manual of Discipline Ix, 21-26

h3. “World English Bible”:http://ebible.org/, public domain.


Exodus 20

h3. The Ten Commandments

^1^ And God spoke all these words:

^2^ “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

^3^ “You shall have no other gods before[1] me.

^4^ “You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. ^5^ You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, ^6^ but showing love to a thousand {generations} of those who love me and keep my commandments.

^7^ “You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God, for the LORD will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.

^8^ “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. ^9^ Six days you shall labor and do all your work, ^10^ but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the LORD your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your manservant or maidservant, nor your animals, nor the alien within your gates. ^11^ For in six days the LORD made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the LORD blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

^12^ “Honor your father and your mother, so that you may live long in the land the LORD your God is giving you.

^13^ “You shall not murder.

^14^ “You shall not commit adultery.

^15^ “You shall not steal.

^16^ “You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.

^17^ “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant or maidservant, his ox or donkey, or anything that belongs to your neighbor.”

^18^ When the people saw the thunder and lightning and heard the trumpet and saw the mountain in smoke, they trembled with fear. They stayed at a distance ^19^ and said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not have God speak to us or we will die.”

^20^ Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid. God has come to test you, so that the fear of God will be with you to keep you from sinning.”

^21^ The people remained at a distance, while Moses approached the thick darkness where God was.

h3. Idols and Altars

^22^ Then the LORD said to Moses, “Tell the Israelites this: ‘You have seen for yourselves that I have spoken to you from heaven: ^23^ Do not make any gods to be alongside me; do not make for yourselves gods of silver or gods of gold.

^24^ ” ‘Make an altar of earth for me and sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and fellowship offerings[2], your sheep and goats and your cattle. Wherever I cause my name to be honored, I will come to you and bless you. ^25^ If you make an altar of stones for me, do not build it with dressed stones, for you will defile it if you use a tool on it. ^26^ And do not go up to my altar on steps, lest your nakedness be exposed on it.’

??(bibleref)Exodus 20:1-26??

h3. Footnotes (NIV(New International Version)):

fn1. “Exodus 20:3”:/bible/exodus_20_3 Or _besides_

fn2. “Exodus 20:24”:/bible/exodus_20_24 Traditionally _peace offerings_

h3. “New International Version”:http://www.ibs.org/niv/

_Copyright (c) 1973, 1978, 1984 by International Bible Society [Zondervan]_